Journal Articles

2020

    Y.S. Chiu, C.R. Kao*, and A. Shigetou, “Different interfacial structures of Cu/In obtained by surface activated bonding (SAB) in vacuum and vapor-assisted vacuum ultraviolet (V-VUV) at atmospheric pressure,” Materials and Design, p.109065, 2020.

    I.A. Weng, H.T. Hung, W.C. Huang, C.R. Kao*, and Y.H. Chen, “Vertical Interconnections by Electroless Au Deposition on Electroless Ni Immersion Au Surface Finish,” Journal of Electronic Materials, p.5003-5008, 2020.

    Y. F. Lin, H. T. Hung, H. Y. Yu, C. R. Kao*, and Y. W. Wang, “Phase stabilities and interfacial reactions of the Cu–In binary systems,” Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, p.10161-10169, 2020.

    R. Sheikhi, Y. Huo, C. H. Tsai, and C. R. Kao*, “Prior-to-bond annealing effects on the diamond-to-copper heterogeneous integration using silver–indium multilayer structure,” Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, p.8059-8071, 2020.

    M. H. Liao, P. Y. Lu, W. J. Su, S. C. Chen, H. T. Hung, and C. R. Kao*, “The Demonstration of Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) as Flip-Chip Connections in 3-D Integrated Circuits With an Ultralow Connection Resistance,” IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, p.2205-2207, 2020.

    H. Y. Yu, T. H. Yang, Y. S. Chiu, and C. R. Kao*, “Surface Diffusion and Interfacial Reaction in Cu/Sn/Ni Micro Pillars,” Journal of Electronic Materials, p.1-8, 2020.

2019

    H. Y. Yu, T. H. Yang, Y. S. Chiu, and C. R. Kao*, “Surface Diffusion and Interfacial Reaction in Cu/Sn/Ni Micro Pillars,” Journal of Electronic Materials, p.1-8, 2019.

    P. J. Chiang, J. Y. Wu, H. Y. Yu, and C. R. Kao*, “Creep Behaviors along Characteristic Crystal Orientations of Sn and Sn-1.8Ag by Using Nanoindentation,” JOM , 71, p.2998-3011, 2019.

    Y. W. Wang, Z. X. Zhu, W. L. Shih, and C. R. Kao*, “Abnormal Cu3Sn Growth through Grain Boundary Penetration in Space-confined Ni-Sn-Cu Diffusion Couples,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds , 799, p.108-112, 2019.

    J. Y. Wu, Y. S. Chiu, Y. W. Wang, and C. R. Kao*, “Mechanical Characterizations of Single-crystalline (Cu, Ni)6Sn5 through Uniaxial Micro-compression,” Materials Science & Engineering A , 753, p.22-30, 2019.

    Y. S. Chiu, H. Y. Yu, H. T. Hung, Y.W. Wang, and C. R. Kao*, “Phase Formation and Microstructure Evolution in Cu/In/Cu Joints,” Microelectronics Reliability , 95, p.18-27, 2019.

    T. H. Yang*, C.R. Kao, and A. Shigetou, “Organic-Inorganic Solid-State Hybridization with High-Strength and Anti-Hydrolysis Interface,” Scientific Reports , 9.1, p.504, 2019.

    I. A. Weng, H. T. Hung, S. Yang, C. R. Kao*, and Y. H. Chen, “Self Assembly of Reduced Au Atoms for Vertical Interconnections in Three Dimensional Integrated Circuits,” Scripta Materialia , 159, p.119-122, 2019.

    P. Y. Wu, C. R. Kao*, and T. W. H. Sheu*, “Modeling and simulation on electroless nickel plating in a microchannel,” Applied Mathematical Modelling , under review.

    T. H. Yang, H. Y. Yu,Y. W. Wang, and, C.R. Kao*, “Effects of Aspect Ratio on Microstructural Evolution of Ni/Sn/Ni Micro Joints,” Journal of Electronic Materials , 48.1, p.6-19, 2019.

    Y. W. Wang, W. L. Shih, H. T. Hung, and C. R. Kao*, “Reaction in Ni/Sn/Cu Micro Joints for Chip-Stacking Applications,” Journal of Electronic Materials , 48.1, p.25-31, 2019.

2018

    C.A.Yang, J. Wu, C. C. Lee, and C. R. Kao*, “Analyses and Design for Electrochemical Migration Suppression by Alloying Indium into Silver,” Journal of Materials Science : Materials in Electronics , 29, p.13878-13888, 2018.

    C.A.Yang, S. Yang, X. Liu, H. Nishikawa, C. R. Kao*, “Enhancement ofNano-Silver Chip Attachmentby Using Transient Liquid Phase Reaction with Indium,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds , 762, p.586-597, 2018.

    S. Yang, H. T. Hung, P. Y. Wu, Y. W. Wang, H. Nishikawa, and C. R. Kao*, “Materials Merging Mechanism of Microfluidic Electroless Interconnection Process,” Journal of The Electrochemical Society , 165, p.D273-D281, 2018.

    Y. W. Wang, T. L. Yang, J. Y. Wu, and C. R. Kao*, “Pronounced Effects of Zn Additions on Cu-Sn Microjoints for Chip-Stacking Applications,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds , 750, p.570-576, 2018.

2017

    H. W. Yang*, C. R. Kao, and A. Shigetou, “Fast Atom Beam- and Vacuum Ultraviolet-Activated Sites for Low Temperature Hybrid Integration,” Langmuir , 33, p.8413-8419, 2017.

    J. J. Yu, J. Y. Wu, L. J. Yu,H. W. Yang, and C. R. Kao*, “Micromechanical Behavior of Single-Crystalline Cu6Sn5 by Picoindentation,” Journal of Materials Science , 52, p.7166-7174, 2017.

    S. Yang, C. Y. Chang, Z. X. Zhu, Y. F. Lin, and C. R. Kao*, “Grain Boundary Penetration of Various Types of Ni Layer by Molten Metals,” Journal of Electronic Materials , 46, p.4147-4151, 2017.

    H. T. Hung, S. Yang, Y. B. Chen, and C. R. Kao*, “Chip-to-Chip Direct Interconnections by Using Controlled Flow Electroless Ni Plating,” Journal of Electronic Materials , 46, p.4321-4325, 2017.

    L. J. Yu, H. W. Yen, J. Y. Wu, J. J. Yu, and C. R. Kao*, “Micromechanical Behavior of Single Crystalline Ni3Sn4 in Micro Joints for Chip-Stacking Applications,” Materials Science and Engineering A , 685, p.123-130, 2017.

    H. W. Yang, J. Y. Wu, Z. X. Zhu, and C.R. Kao*, “Effects of Surface Diffusion and Reaction-induced Volume Shrinkage on Morphological Evolutions of Micro Joints,” Materials Chemistry and Physics, 191, p.13-19, 2017.

2016

    T. L. Yang,T. Aoki, K. Matsumoto, K. Toriyama,A. Horibe, H. Mori, Y. Orii, J. Y. Wu, and C. R. Kao*, “Full Intermetallic Joints for Chip Stacking by Using Thermal Gradient Bonding,” Acta Materialia, 113, p.90-97, 2016.

    P. S. Yang, P. H. Cheng, C. R. Kao, and M. J. Chen*, “Novel Self-shrinking Mask for Sub-3 nm Pattern Fabrication,” Scientific Reports, 6, 29625, 2016.

    J. H. Ke*, Y. Gao, C. R. Kao, and Y. Wang“Pattern Formation during interfacial Reaction in-between Liquid Sn and Cu Substrates – a simulation study,” Acta Materialia, 113, p.245-258, 2016.

    Z. X. Zhu, C. C. Li, L. L. Liao, C. K. Liu, and C. R. Kao*, “Au-Sn Bonding Material for the Assembly of Power Integrated Circuit Module,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 671, p.340-345, 2016.

2015

    C. C. Li, F. Drymiotis, L. L. Liao, H. T. Hung, J. H. Ke, C. K. Liu, C. R. Kao*, and G. J. Snyder, “Interfacial Reactions between PbTe-Based Thermoelectric Materials and Cu and Ag Bonding Materials,” Journal of Materials Chemistry C, 3, p.10590-10596, 2015.

    T. L. Yang,J. Y. Wu, C. C. Li, S. Yang, and C. R. Kao*, “Low Temperature Bonding for High Temperature Applications by using SnBi Solders,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 647, p.681-685, 2015.

    C. C. Li, J.H. Ke, C. A. Yang, and C. R. Kao*, “Mechanism of Volume Shrinkage during Reaction between Ni and Ag-doped Sn,” Materials Letters, 156, p.150-152, 2015.

    M. N. Bashir, A. S. M. A. Haseeb, A. Z. M. S. Rahman, M. A. Fazal, and C. R. Kao, “Reduction of Electromigration Damage in SAC305 Solder Joints by adding Ni Nanoparticles through Flux Doping,” Journal of Materials Science, 50, p.6748-6756, 2015.

    T. L. Yang,Z. X. Zhu,J. J. Yu, Y. F. Lin, and C. R. Kao*, “Interfacial Energy Effect on the Distribution of Ag3Sn in Full Intermetallic Joints,” Advanced Engineering Materials, 17, pp.1528-1531, 2015.

    C. C. Li, F.Drymiotis, L. L. Liao, M. J. Dai, C. K. Liu, C. L. Cheng, Y. Y. Cheng, C. R. Kao* and G. J. Snyder, “Silver as a Highly Effective Bonding Layer for Lead Telluride Thermoelectric Modules Assembled by Rapid Hot-Pressing,” Energy Conversion and Management, 98, p.134-137, 2015.

    J. J. Yu, C. A. Yang, Y. F. Lin, C. H. Hsueh, and C. R. Kao “Optimal Ag Addition for the Elimination of Voids in Ni/SnAg/Ni Micro Joints for 3D IC Applications,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 629, p.16-21, 2015.

    T. L. Yang, J. J. Yu, C. C. Li, Y. F. Lin, and C. R. Kao, “Dominant Effects of Sn Orientation on Serrated Cathode Dissolution and Resulting Failure in Actual Solder Joints under Electromigration,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 627, p.281-286, 2015.

    C. Key Chung, Z. X. Zhu, and C. R. Kao, “Thermal stress of surface oxide layer on micro solder bumps during Reflow,” Journal of Electronic Materials, 44, p.744-750, 2015.

2014

    W. L. Shih, T. L. Yang, H. Y. Chuang, M. S. Kuo, and C. R. Kao, “Inhibition of Gold Embrittlement in Micro-Joints for Three-dimensional Integrated Circuits,” Journal of Electronic Materials, 43, p.4262-4265, 2014.

    J. H. Ke, A. Boyne, Y. Wang, and C. R. Kao, "Phase Field Microelasticity Model of Dislocation Climb: Methodology and Applications," Acta Materialia, 79, p.396-410, 2014.

    T. L. Yang,J. J. Yu,W. L. Shih, C. H. Hsueh, and C. R. Kao, “Effects of Silver Addition on Cu-Sn Microjoints for Chip-Stacking Applications,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 605, p.193-198, 2014.

    T.C. Huang, T.L. Yang, J.H. Ke, C. H. Hsueh, and C.R. Kao, “Effects of Sn Grain Orientation on Substrate Dissolution and Intermetallic Precipitation in Solder Joints under Electron Current Stressing,” Scripta Materialia, 80, p.37-40, 2014.

    C. C. Li, W. L. Shih, C. K. Chung, and C. R. Kao, “Amorphous Pd Layer as a Highly Effective Oxidation Barrier for Surface Finish of Electronic Terminals,” Corrosion Science, 83, p.419-422, 2014.

    C. C. Li, C. K. Chung, W. L. Shih, and C. R. Kao, “Volume Shrinkage Induced by Interfacial Reaction in Micro-Ni/Sn/Ni Joints,” Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 45A, p.2343-2346, 2014.

    T. L. Yang, K. Y. Huang, S. Yang, H. H. Hsieh, and C. R. Kao, “Growth Kinetics of Ag3Sn in Silicon Solar Cells with a Sintered Ag Metallization Layer,” Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells, 123, p.139-143, 2014.

2013

    Selected as Journal Cover, T. L. Yang, J. H. Ke, W. L. Shih, Y. S. Lai, and C. R. Kao, “Serrated Cathode Dissolution under High Current Density: Morphology and Root Cause,” Journal of Applied Physics, 114, 053501, 2013.

    C. C. Li, Z. X. Zhu, L. L. Liao, M. J. Dai, C. K. Liu, and C. R. Kao, “Assembly of N-type Bi2(Te, Se)3 Thermoelectric Modules by Low Temperature Bonding,” Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, 18, p.421-424, 2013.

    Y. J. Chen, T. L. Yang, J. J. Yu, C. L. Kao, and C. R. Kao, “Gold and Palladium Embrittlement Issues in three-dimensional integrated circuit Interconnections,” Materials Letters, 110, p.13-15, 2013.

    C. K. Chung, Y.J. Chen, T. L. Yang, and C. R. Kao, “Reactions of Sn-4.0Ag-0.5Cu on Cu and electroless Ni substrate in premelting soldering process,” Journal of Electronic Materials, 42, p.1254-1259, 2013.

    T. C. Huang, T. L. Yang, J. H. Ke, C. C. Li, and C. R. Kao, “Precipitation Induced by Diffusivity Anisotropy in Sn Grains under Electron Current Stressing,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 555, p.237-240, 2013.

    C. H. Lin, H.Y. Chuang, and C. R. Kao, “Cu(TiWNx) Film as a Barrierless Buffer Layer for Metallization Applications ,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 52, 01AC12, 2013.

    Y. J. Chen, C. K. Chung, C. R. Yang, and C. R. Kao, “Single-joint Shear Strength of Micro Cu pillar Solder bumps with Different Amounts of Intermetallics,” Microelectronics Reliability, 53, p.47-52, 2013

    C. R. Kao, A. T. Wu, K. N. Tu, and Y. S. Lai, “Reliability of Mirco-Interconnects in 3D IC Packages,” Microelectronics Reliability, 53, p. 1, 2013.

2012

    C. K. Chung, Y.J. Chen, W. M. Chen, and C. R. Kao, "Origin and Evolution of Voids in Electroless Ni during Soldering Reaction," Acta Materialia, 60, p.4586-4593, 2012.

    J. H. Ke, H. Y. Chuang, W. L. Shih, and C. R. Kao, "Mechanism for Serrated Cathode Dissolution in Cu/Sn/Cu Interconnect under Electron Current Stressing," Acta Materialia, 60, p.2082-2090, 2012.

    H. Y. Chuang, J. J. Yu, M. S. Kuo, H. M. Tong, and C. R. Kao, “Elimination of Voids in Reactions between Ni and Sn: a Novel Effect of Silver,” Scripta Materialia, 66, p.171-174, 2012.

    H. Y. Chuang, T. L. Yang, M. S. Kuo, Y.J. Chen, J. J. Yu, C.C. Li, and C. R. Kao, “Critical Concerns in Soldering Reactions Arising from Space Confinement in 3-D IC Packages,” IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability, 12, p.233-240, 2012.

    C. K. Chung, Y.J. Chen, C.C. Li, and C. R. Kao, “The Critical Oxide Thickness for Pb-Free Reflow Soldering on Cu Substrate,” Thin Solid Films, 520, p.5346-5352, 2012.

    C. K. Chung, T. C. Huang, R. Shia, T. L. Yang, and C. R. Kao*, “Roles of Phosphorous in Sn4Ag0.5Cu solder reaction with electrolytic Ni-Au,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 539, p.57-62, 2012.

    W. M. Chen, S. K. Kang and C. R. Kao, "Effects of Ti Addition to Sn-Ag and Sn-Cu Solders," Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 520, p.244-349, 2012.

2011

    J. H. Ke, T. L. Yang, Y. S. Lai, and C. R. Kao, "Analysis and Experimental Verification of the Competing Degradation Mechanisms for Solder Joints under Electron Current Stressing," Acta Materialia, 59, p.2462-2368, 2011.

    W. M. Chen, T. L. Yang, C. K. Chung, and C.R. Kao, “The Orientation Relationship between Ni and Cu6Sn5 Formed during the soldering reaction,” Scripta Materialia, 65, p.331-334, 2011.

    C. C Chang, Y. J. Chen, M. Y. Tsai, and C. R. Kao, "Laminar Pattern Induced by Cycling Thermomechanical Stress in Two-Phase Materials," Materials Chemistry and Physics,130, p.413-417, 2011.

    C. C. Chang, S. C. Yang, Y. J. Chen, and C. R. Kao, "Consumption of Cu Pad during Multiple Reflows of Ni-doped SnAgCu Solder," International Journal of Materials Research,102, p.579-583, 2011.

    M. Y. Tsai, Y. L. Lin, M. H. Tsai, Y. J. Chen, and C. R. Kao, "Experimental Evidence for Formation of Ni-AlCompound in Flip-Chip Joints under Current Stressing," Journal of Electronic Materials, 40, p.2076-2080, 2011.

    C. S. Liu, C. E. Ho, C. S. Peng, and C. R. Kao, “Effects of Joining Sequence on the Interfacial Reactions and Substrate Dissolution Behaviors in Ni/Solder/Cu Solder Joints,” Journal of Electronic Materials, 40, p.1912-1920, 2011.

    J. Chen, Y. S. Lai, Y. W. Wang, and C. R. Kao, "Investigation of Growth Behavior of Al-Cu Intermetallic Compounds in Cu Wire Bonding," Microelectronics Reliability, 51, p.125-129, 2011.

2010

    C. K. Chung, J. G. Duh, and C. R. Kao, "Direct Evidence for Cu-Enriched Region at Boundary between Cu6Sn5 and Cu3Sn during Cu/Sn Reaction," Scripta Materialia, 63, p.258-260, 2010.

    W. M. Chen, S. C. Yang, M. H. Tsai, and C. R. Kao, "Uncovering the driving force for massive spalling in Sn-Cu/Ni system," Scripta Materialia, 63, p.47-49, 2010.

    Y. W. Lin, J. H. Ke, H. Y. Chuang, Y. S. Lai,and C. R. Kao, "Electromigration in Flip Chip Solder Joints under Extra High Current Density," Journal of Applied Physics, 107, 073516, 2010.

    M. H. Tsai, W. M. Chen, M. Y. Tsai, and C. R. Kao, "Sn concentration effect on the formation of intermetallic compounds in high-Pb/Ni reactions" Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 504, p.341-344, 2010.

    H. Y. Chuang, C. H. Lin, J. P. Chu, and C. R. Kao, "Novel Cu-RuNx Composite Layer with Good Solderability and Very Low Consumption Rate," Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 504, p.L25, 2010.

    S. C. Yang, C. C. Chang, M. H. Tsai, and C. R. Kao, "Effect of Cu concentration, solder volume, and temperature on the reaction between SnAgCu solders and Ni," Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 499, p.149-153, 2010.

    M. Y. Tsai, S. C. Yang, Y. W. Wang, and C. R. Kao, "Grain growth sequence of Cu3Sn in the Cu/Sn and Cu/Sn-Zn systems", Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 494, p.123-127, 2010.

    Y. W. Wang, Y. W. Lin, and C. R. Kao, "Inhibiting the Formation of Microvoids in Cu3Sn by Additions of Cu to Solders," Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 493, p.233-239, 2010.

    C. C. Chang, Y. W. Lin, Y. W. Wang, and C. R. Kao, "The Effects of Solder Volume and Cu Concentration on the Consumption Rate of Cu Pad during Reflow Soldering," Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 492, p.99-104, 2010.

    C. C. Chang, Y. W. Wang, Y. S. Lai, and C. R. Kao, "Interfacial reaction between 95Pb-5Sn solder bump and 37Pb-63Sn presolder in flip-chip solder joints," Journal of Electronic Materials, 39, p.1289-1294, 2010.

    M. Y. Tsai, Y. L. Lin, Y. W Lin, J. H. Ke, and C. R. Kao, "Transmission Electron Microscopy Characterization of Ni(V) Metallization Stressed under High Current Density in Flip Chip Solder Joints," Journal of Electronic Materials, 39, p.2528-2535, 2010.

    Y. W. Wang, C. C. Chang, W. M. Chen, and C. R. Kao, "Effects of Ni additions on the growth of Cu3Sn in high-lead solders," Journal of Electronic Materials, 39, p.2636-2642, 2010.

    C. C. Chang, H. Y. Chuang,Y. S. Lai, and C. R. Kao, "Interaction between Ni and Cu across 95Pb-5Sn High-Lead Layer," Journal of Electronic Materials, 39, p.2662-2668, 2010.

    H. Y. Chuang, C. H. Lin, J. P. Chu, C. R. Kao, “Novel Cu-RuNx Composite Layer with Good Solderability and Very Low Consumption Rate,” ASE Technology Journal, 3, Issue 2, p.133, 2010.

    Y. W. Lin, J. H. Ke, T. L. Yang, C. R. Kao, "Study of Flip Chip Electromigration with Temperature Control," ASE Technology Journal, 3, Issue 1, p.57, 2010.

2009

    M. H. Tsai, Y. W. Lin,and C. R. Kao, "Effect of Sn Concentration on Massive Spalling in High-Pb Soldering Reaction with Cu Substrate," Journal of Materials Research, 24, p.3407, 2009.

    C. C. Chang, Y. W. Lin,Y. S. Lai, and C. R. Kao, "Fundamental Study of the Intermixing of 95Pb-5Sn High Lead Solder Bumps and the 37Pb-63Sn Pre-solder on Chip-Carrier Substrates," Journal of Electronic Materials, 38, p.2234, 2009.

    Yi-Shao Lai, C. R. Kao, Hsiao-Chuan Chang, Chin-Li Kao, "Effect of Multiple Reflow Cycles on Ball Impact Responses of Sn-Ag-Cu Solder Joints," Soldering and Surface Mount Technology, 21, p.4, 2009.

    Y. W. Wang, Y. W. Lin, C. T. Tu, and C. R. Kao, "Effects of Minor Fe, Co, and Ni Additions on the Reaction between SnAgCu Solder and Cu," Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 478, p.121, 2009.

    Y. W. Wang, C. C. Chang, and C. R. Kao, "Minimum Effective Ni Addition to SnAgCu Solders for Retarding Cu3Sn Growth," Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 478, p.L1, 2009.

    M. Y. Tsai, M. H. Chou, and C. R. Kao, “Interfacial Reaction and the Dominant Diffusing Species in Mg-Ni System,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 471, p.90, 2009.

    ISI Highly Cited Papers, 2012.5-2012.11. Y. W. Wang, Y. W. Lin, and C. R. Kao, "Kirkendall Voids Formation in the Reaction between Ni-doped SnAg Lead-Free Solder and Different Cu Substrates," Microelectronics Reliability, 49, p.248, 2009.

    S. C. Yang, W. C. Chang, Y. W. Wang, and C. R. Kao, “Interfacial Reaction and wetting behavior between Pt and Molten Solder,” Journal of Electronic Materials, 38, p.25, 2009.

2008

    S. C. Yang, Y. W. Wang, C. C. Chang and C. R. Kao, “Analysis and experimental verification of the volume effect in the reaction between Zn-doped solders and Cu,” Journal of Electronic Materials, 37, p.1591, 2008.

    J. R. Huang, C. M. Tsai, Y. W. Lin, and C. R. Kao, “Pronounced electromigration of Cu in molten Sn-based solders,” Journal of Materials Research, 23, p.250, 2008.

    Y. L. Lin, Yi-Shao Lai, Y. W. Lin, and C. R. Kao, “Effect of UBM thickness on the mean-time-to-failure of flip chip solder joints under electromigration,” Journal of Electronic Materials, 37, p.96, 2008.

    Y. W. Lin, Yi-Shao Lai, Y. L. Lin, C. T. Tu, and C. R. Kao, “Tin whisker growth induced by high electron current density,” Journal of Electronic Materials, 37, p.17,2008.

    C. R. Kao, “Lead-free and lead-bearing electronic solders: implementation, reliability, and new technology,” JOM, 60, June, p.60, 2008.

2007

    C. W. Chang, S. C. Yang, Chun-Te Tu, and C. R. Kao, “Cross-interaction between Ni and Cu across Sn layers with different thickness,” Journal of Electronic Materials, 36, p.1455, 2007.

    S. C. Yang, C. E. Ho, C. W. Chang, and C. R. Kao, “Massive Spalling of Intermetallic in Solder-Substrate Reactions due to limited Supply of the Active Element,” Journal of Applied Physics, 101, 084911, 2007.

    Invited Review Article and ISI Highly Cited Papers, 2008.5-present. C. E. Ho, S. C. Yang, and C. R. Kao, “Interfacial reaction issues for lead-free electronic solders,” Journal of Materials Science – Materials in Electronics, 18, p.155, 2007.

2006

    Y. L. Lin, Yi-Shao Lai, C. M. Tsai, and C. R. Kao, “Effect of surface finish on the failure mechanisms of flip-chip solder joints under electromigration,” Journal of Electronic Materials, 35, p.2147, 2006.

    S. C. Yang, C. E. Ho, C. W. Chang,and C. R. Kao, “Strong Zn concentration effect on the soldering reactions between Sn-based solders and Cu,” Journal of Materials Research,21, p.2436, 2006.

    C. W. Chang, C. E. Ho, S. C. Yang, and C. R. Kao, “Kinetics of AuSn4 migration in lead-free solders,” Journal of Electronic Materials, 35, p.1948, 2006.

    C. M. Tsai, Yi-Shao Lai, Y, L. Lin, C. W. Chang, and C. R. Kao “In-Situ observation of material migration in flip-chip solder joints under current stressing,” Journal of Electronic Materials, 35, p.1781, 2006.

    C. M. Tsai, Y. L. Lin, J. Y. Tsai, Y. S. Lai, and C. R. Kao, “Local melting induced by electromigration in flip-chip solder joints,” Journal of Electronic Materials, 35, p.1005, 2006.

    C. E. Ho, Y. W. Lin, S. C. Yang, C. R. Kao, and D. S. Jiang, “The effect of limited Cu supply on the soldering reactions between SnAgCu and Ni,” Journal of Electronic Materials, 35, p.1017, 2006.

    Y. L. Lin, C. W. Chang, C. M. Tsai, C. W. Lee, and C. R. Kao, “Electromigration-induced UBM consumption and the resulting failure mechanisms in flip chip solder joints,” Journal of Electronic Materials, 35, p.1010, 2006.

    C. W. Chang, Q. P. Lee, C. E. Ho, and C. R. Kao, “Cross-interaction between Au and Cu in Au/Sn/Cu ternary diffusion couples,” Journal of Electronic Materials, 35, p.366, 2006.

    J. Y. Tsai, C. W. Chang, C. E. Ho, Y. L. Lin, and C. R. Kao, “Microstructure evolution of gold-tin eutectic solder on Cu and Ni substrates,” Journal of Electronic Materials, 35, p.65, 2006.

    C. W. Chang, J. R. Huang, and C. R. Kao, “The effect of applied electron current on the Cu diffusion in molten Sn3.5Ag,” Journal of Materials Science and Engineering, 38, No. 4, p.206, 2006.

2005

    A. T. Wu, A. M. Gusak, K. N. Tu, and C. R. Kao, “Electromigration-induced grain rotation in anisotropic conducting beta-tin,” Applied Physics Letters, 86, 241902, 2005.

    Y. H. Lin, Y. C. Hu, C. M. Tsai, C. R. Kao, and K. N. Tu, “In-situ observation of the void formation-and propagation mechanism in solder joints under current-stressing,” Acta Materialia, 53, p.2029, 2005.

    W. C. Luo, C. E. Ho, J. Y. Tsai, Y. L. Lin, and C. R. Kao, “Solid-state reactions between Ni and tin-silver-copper solders with different Cu concentrations,” Materials Science and Engineering A, 396, p.385, 2005.

    J. Y. Tsai, C. W. Chang, Y. C. Shieh, Y. C. Hu, and C. R. Kao, “Controlling the microstructure from the gold-tin Reaction,” Journal of Electronic Materials, 34, p.182, 2005.

    Y. H. Lin, C. M. Tsai, Y. C. Hu, Y. L. Lin, and C. R. Kao, “Electromigration induced failure in flip chip solder joints,” Journal of Electronic Materials,34, p.27, 2005.

    Y. H. Lin, C. M. Tsai, Y. C. Hu, Y. L. Lin, J. Y. Tsai, and C. R. Kao, “Electromigration induced metal dissolution in flip-chip solder joints,” Materials Science Forum, 2655, p. 475-479, 2005.

    S. C. Yang, C. E. Ho, and C. R. Kao, “The effect of volume on the soldering reaction between SnAgCu solders and Ni,” Journal of Materials Science and Engineering, 37, No. 4, p.230, 2005.

2004

    A. T. Wu, K. N. Tu, J. R. Lloyd, N. Tamura, B. C. Valek, and C. R. Kao, “Electromigration induced microstructure evolution in tin studied by synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction,” Applied Physics Letters, 85, p.2490, 2004.

    C. M. Tsai, W. C. Luo, C. W. Chang, Y. C. Shieh, and C. R. Kao, “Cross-interaction of UBM and soldering pad in flip-chip solder joints,” Journal of Electronic Materials, 33, p.1424, 2004.

    Y. L. Lin, W. C. Luo, Y. H. Lin, C. E. Ho, and C. R. Kao, “Effect of the gold thickness of the surface finish on the interfacial reactions in flip chip solder joints,” Journal of Electronic Materials, 33, p.1092, 2004.

    A. T. Wu, K. N. Tu, J. R. Lloyd, N. Tamura, B. C. Valek, and C. R. Kao, “The study of microstructure evolution of tin grains due to electromigration by using synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction,” TMS Letters, 1, p.165, 2004.

2003

    Y. C. Hu, Y. H. Lin, C. R. Kao, and, K. N. Tu, “Electromigration failure in flip chip solder joints due to rapid dissolution of copper,” Journal of Materials Research, 18, p.2544, 2003.

    J. Y. Tsai, Y. C. Hu, C. M. Tsai, and C. R. Kao, “A Study on the Reaction between Cu and Sn-3.5Ag Solder Doped with Small Amounts of Ni,” Journal of Electronic Materials, 32, p.1203, 2003.

    C. E. Ho, Y. L. Lin, J. Y. Tsai, and C. R. Kao, “Chemical reaction in advanced microelectronic packages,“ Journal of the Chinese Institute of Chemical Engineers, 34, p.387, 2003.

    C. R. Kao, “Recent progress in phase diagram calculation and application,” JOM, 55, December, p.47, 2003.

2002

    C. E. Ho, Y. L. Lin, and C. R. Kao, “Strong effect of Cu concentration on the reaction between lead-free microelectronic solders and Ni,“ Chemistry of Materials, 14, p.949, 2002.

    ISI Highly Cited Papers, 2005-2013. W. T. Chen, C. E. Ho, and C. R. Kao, “Effect of Cu concentration on the interfacial reactions between Ni and Sn-Cu solders,” Journal of Materials Research, 17, p.263, 2002.

    C. E. Ho, L. C. Shiau, and C. R. Kao, “Inhibiting the formation of (Au1-xNix)Sn4 and reducing the consumption of Ni metallization in solder joints,” Journal of Electronic Materials, 31, p.1264, 2002.

    ISI Highly Cited Papers, 2005-2013. C. E. Ho, R. Y. Tsai, Y. L. Lin, and C. R. Kao, “Effect of Cu concentration on the reactions between Sn-Ag-Cu solders and Ni,” Journal of Electronic Materials, 31, p.584, 2002.

    W. T. Chen, R. Y. Tsai, Y. L. Lin, and C. R. Kao, “Effect of copper concentration on the solid-state reactions between tin-copper lead-free solders and nickel,” Journal of Surface Mount Technology, 15, Issue 4, p.40, 2002.

    ISI Highly Cited Papers, 2006.7-2009.9. L. C. Shiau, C. E. Ho, and C. R. Kao, “Reactions between SnAgCu lead-free solders and the Au/Ni surface finish in advanced electronic packages,” Soldering and Surface Mount Technology, 14, p.25, 2002.

Patents

 
類別 專利名稱 國別 專利號碼 發明人 專利權人 專利期間 國科會計畫編號
發明 互連結構 中華民國 I643533 高振宏、洪漢堂、楊竣翔、陳彥彬 台灣大學 2018.12.1-2036.2.21
發明 互連結構及其製造方法 中華民國 I608771 高振宏、洪漢堂、楊竣翔、陳彥彬 台灣大學 2017.12.11-2036.2.21
發明 Interconnection structures and methods for making the same 美國 US10,332,861 B2 Cheng-Heng Kao, Han-Tang Hung, Chun-Hsiang Yang, Yan-Bing Chen 台灣大學 2019.6.25-2035.7.17
發明 Interconnection structures and methods for making the same 美國 US 9,786,634 B2 Cheng-Heng Kao, Han-Tang Hung, Chun-Hsiang Yang, Yan-Bing Chen 台灣大學 2017.10.10-2035.7.17
發明 Semiconductor device and method of manufacture 美國 US 9,666,441 Cheng-Heng Kao, Samuel C. Pan, Chi-Wen Liu, Miin-Jang Chen, Po-Shuan Yang 台積電,台灣大學
發明 一種可抑制易脆之Au介金屬於銲點中生成之方法 中華民國 I149096 高振宏、何政恩 國科會 2002.1.11-2021.3.22 NSC-89-2214-E-008-004
發明 Method for controlling the formation of intermetallic compounds in solder joints 美國 US6602777 B1 高振宏、何政恩 中央大學 2002.3.20-2021.3.19 NSC-90-2214-E-008-007
發明 具有低鎳消耗速率的銲點 中華民國 I181410 高振宏、何政恩、蕭麗娟 中央大學 2003.7.1-2022.8.6 NSC-90-2214-E-008-007
發明 覆晶封裝結構及其製程 中華民國 I189379 劉正毓、王信介、高振宏 中央大學 2003.10.21-2022.6.18 NSC-90-2214-E-008-007
發明 Process of fabricating flip chip interconnection structure 美國 US6642079 B1 劉正毓、王信介、高振宏 中央大學 2002.10.1-2021.9.30 NSC-90-2214-E-008-007
發明 接點結構 中華民國 I227558 高振宏、張琬君 中央大學 2005.2.1-2023.11.12 NSC-91-2216-E-008-010
發明 Flip chip interconnection structure and process of making the same 美國 US6744142 B2 劉正毓、王信介、高振宏 中央大學 2003.3.7-2022.3.6 NSC-91-2216-E-008-010
發明 控制接點微結構的方法 中華民國 I229911 高振宏、蔡瑞芸、張建偉 中央大學 2005.3.21-2023.12.15 NSC-91-2216-E-008-010
發明 防止金屬遷移的電子封裝件 中華民國 I419280 高振宏、朱瑾、莊鑫毅、林宗新 台灣大學 2013.12.11-2029.1.15
發明 作為緩衝層之銅鍍層及其製作方法 中華民國 I464286 林宗新、莊鑫毅、朱瑾、高振宏 林宗新 2014.12.11-2031.10.30

Thesis

Posters

Before 2005

    New Failure Mode Induced by Electric Current in Flip Chip Solder Joint  by Y. H. Lin

    高階電子封裝中錫鋅無鉛銲料與金墊層反應之研究  by 林彥良

    先進微電子封裝中無鉛銲料與金屬化層間之反應  by 尤宏誌

    Ni含量對於Sn-Ag無鉛銲料與銅基才反應之影響  by 蔡瑞云

    In-Situ observation of solder joints under current-stressing  by Y. H. Lin

2005

    Interfacial Reaction between SnAgCu Solders and Ni  by S. C. Yangs

    Interaction of Pt and Cu in Solder Reaction   by I. C. Chen

    Tin Whiskers Growth Drive by Current Stress   by Y. W. Lin

2006

    Interfacial Reaction between SnAgCu Solders and Cu  by C. C. Chang

    The Study of The Main Diffusing Species in Cu6Sn5   by C. H. Chung

    Numerical analysis on thr electromigration in electrical packages   by H. K. Chen

    Study of intermetallic growth in Mg-Ni diffusion couples  by M. H. Chou

    Electromigation-Induced UBM Consumption and the Resulting Failure Mechanisms in Flip Chip Solder Joint   by Y. L. Lin

    The Effect of Minor Fe, Co, Ni, Addition to Lead-Free Solder on the Thickness of Cu3Sn at the Interface   by Y. W. Wang

2007

    Dissolution and Interfacial Reaction between Cu and Ni-doped Solders  by C. C. Chang

    Massive Spalling of Intermetallic in Solder Joints: a General Phenomenon that Can Occur in Multiple Solder-Substrate Systems  by S. C. Yang

    The Effects of Minor Elements Addition to Lead-Free Solders on the Growth of Intermetallic Compound  by Y. W. Wang

2008

    Interfacial Reaction on the Inter-mixing Between 95/5 High Lead Solder Bump and the 37/63 Pre-solder on Chip-Carrier Substrates  by C. C. Chang

    The Effects of Minor Alloy Additions to Lead-Free Electronic Solder Joints  by Y. W. Wang

    Fundamental Study on the Inter-mixing Between 95/5 High Lead Solder Bump and the 37/63 Pre-solder on Chip-Carrier Substrates  by C. C. Lin

    Study of Flip Chip Packages under Extra High Current Density Test with Temperature Control  by J. H. Ke

    Investigations of New High-Temperature lead-free solders  by C. F. Chiang

2010

    Investigation on the Driving Force for Massive Spalling Phenomenon  by W. M. Chen

    Two Competing Degradation Mechanisms in Flip Chip Solder Joints under High Current Density  by T. L. Yang

2012

    Re-emerging Au Embrittlement in the Soldering Reaction under Space Confinement for 3D IC Applications  by Y. J. Chen

    Sn Grain Orientation Effect on the Formation of Highly Serrated Cathode Interface in Solder Joints under Electromigration  by T. L. Yang

    Volume Shrinkage Induced by Interfacial Reaction in Micro Ni/Sn/Ni Structure  by C. C. Li

    Effect of Ag Concentration on the Interfacial Reactions in Small Solder Volume Ni/SnAg/Ni System  by J. J. Yu

    Space Confinement Effects on the Cu/Sn/Cu Interfacial Reactions for 3D IC Applications  by M. H. Chen

    Interfacial reaction of Silicon based Solar Cell Interconnect  by K. Y. Huang

    Thermoelectric Power Generation Modules Fabricated by Solid Liquid Interdiffusion Technique Using Ni/Sn/Ag System  by Z. X. Zhu